Govind Swarup

swarup2010

Data di nascita 1929
Luogo Thakurdwara, I.P.(India)
Nomina 18 febbraio 2008
Disciplina Astrofisica
Titolo Professore

Principali premi, riconoscimenti e accademie
Accademie: Royal Society, Londra; Indian National Science Academy; Indian Academy of Sciences; National Academy of Sciences, Allahabad, India; Third World Academy of Sciences; Indian Geophysical Union; Maharashtra Academy of Sciences; International Academy of Astronautics; Pontificia Accademia delle Scienze; Royal Astronomical Society, Londra; Astronomical Society of India (Presidente 1975-77); International Astronomical Union (IAU) (Presidente, Commissione 40 sulla Radioastronomia, 1979-82); Comitato Esecutivo, Inter Union Commission for Frequency Allocation (IUCAF fino al 1995); IAU Working Group for Future Large Scale Facilities (1994-2000); Presidente, Indian National Committee for International Union of Radio Science (URSI) (1986-88 & 1995-97); Comitato di redazione, Indian Journal of Radio & Space Physics; Comitato di redazione (1990-2000), National Academy of Sciences, India (1997-2000); Indian Physics Association; Indian Physical Society; Institution of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineers; Post-detection Sub-Committee of SETI of International Astronautical Federation (Presidente, 1994-98); Presidente, URSI Committee for Developing Countries (1996-2002); URSI Standing Committee for Future General Assemblies (1999-2002). Premi: 1973 Padma Shri; Premio S.S. Bhatnagar Award 1972, Council of Scientific & Industrial Research, India; Borsa di studio Jawaharlal Nehru Fellowship per 2 anni, 1974; Medaglia P.C. Mahalanobis 1984, Indian National Science Academy; Medaglia Biren Roy Trust 1986, Indian Physical Society, Calcutta; Premio Dr. Vainu Bappu Memorial 1987, Indian National Science Academy; Medaglia Tskolovosky 1987, Federation of Cosmonautics, URSS; Medaglia Meghnad Saha 1987, National Academy of Sciences, India; Premio per la Fisica 1988, The Third World Academy of Sciences; Medaglia d’Oro John Howard Delinger 1990, International Union of Radio Sciences; Premio per la Fisica R.D. Birla 1990, Indian Physics Association; Premio della FIE Foundation per Eminenti Meriti in Scienza e Tecnologia 1991, Ichhalkaranji, India; Premio per la Scienza Gujar Mal Modi 1993, Modi Foundation, India; Medaglia C.V. Raman Medal 1993, Indian National Science Academy; Medaglia Sir Devaprasad Sarbadhikari 1994, Università di Calcutta; Medaglia M.P. Birla, Birla Institute of Astronomy and Planetarium Sciences 1995, Calcutta; 12° Premio Internazionale Khwarizmi 1999, Iran; Premio H.K. Firodia 2001; Medaglia Herschel, Royal Astronomical Society 2006; Medaglia Grote Reber 2007. 


Riassunto dell’attività scientifica
Negli anni 1953-65 il Prof. Swarup ha scoperto i solar radio burts di 'Tipo U'; ha sviluppato un modello di giro-radiazione per spiegare l’emissione solare a microonde e ha studiato le emissioni radio provenienti dal Sole Quieto. Nel 1959 ha sviluppato una tecnica di trasmissione andata e ritorno che è stata usata in quasi tutti gli interferometri radio del mondo. Nel 1962 ha trovato il primo esempio di un “ponte” steep spectrum di emissioni radio tra i due radiolobi della potente radiogalassia Cyg-A, usando lo Stanford Compound Interferometer; tali ponti permettono di stimare l’età di una radiogalassia. Negli anni 1963-70 ha costruito un radiotelescopio parabolico-cilindrico di 530 m di lunghezza e 30 m di larghezza con un design innovativo ad Ooty nell’India meridionale, che è stato posto su di una collina dall’inclinazione adatta in modo da rendere il suo asse lungo di rotazione parallelo a quello della terra, permettendogli di seguire le radiosorgenti celesti nell’angolo orario per 9,5 ore. Utilizzando il metodo di occultazione lunare, ha fornito per la prima volta dati angolari (da 1 a 10 arc sec) ad altra risoluzione per oltre 1000 radiosorgenti deboli, che hanno fornito prove indipendenti del modello del Big Bang. Le osservazioni Ooty Occultation della sorgente al centro della galassia, Sgr-A, hanno fornito la prima separazione bidimensionale delle sue emissioni termiche e non termiche. Durante gli anni 1980, Swarup ha studiato le caratteristiche dei jet, dei nuclei e degli hot spot dei quasar, sulla base di osservazioni polarizzate. Nel 1984-84 ha concepito e diretto il progetto e la costruzione del Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT), che consiste in 30 parabole del diametro di 45 m completamente orientabili schierate a forma di Y in un’area di circa 25 km nell’India occidentale. Un’idea originale da lui sviluppata ha reso possibile costruire tali antenne enormi in maniera molto economica. Il GMRT è uno strumento molto versatile. È il più grande radiotelescopio operante nella gamma di frequenza di circa 130-1430 MHz. Il Professor Swarup è attualmente impegnato nell’osservare tramite GMRT l’emissione e l’assorbimento di idrogeno atomico proveniente da oggetti del primo Universo. Recentemente, insieme a S.K. Sirothia, ha condotto ricerche sulla scarsità di radiosorgenti a 327 MHz verso il punto freddo prominente della radiazione cosmica a microonde di sottofondo. In breve, negli ultimi 40 anni il Professor Swarup ha potuto fornire contributi importanti in aree quali le radioemissioni solari, le scintillazioni interplanetarie, i pulsar, le radiogalassie, i quasar e la cosmologia. 


Pubblicazioni principali 
Libri: Quasars, IAU Symposium 119, G. Swarup and V.K. Kapahi (eds), Reidel Publications, Dordrecht, July 1986; History of Oriental Astronomy, IAU Colloquium 91, G. Swarup, A.K. Bag and K.S. Shukla (eds), Cambridge University Press (1987); Asia-Pacific Astronomy, 6th Asian-Pacific Regional Meeting on Astronomy of IAU, V.K. Kapahi, N.K. Dadhich, G. Swarup and J.V. Narlikar (eds), Indian Academy of Sciences, Bangalore, 1995; The Universe at Low Radio Frequencies, IAU Symposium No. 199, A.P. Rao, G. Swarup & Gopal Krishna (eds), Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 2003. Articoli: Swarup, G. and Parthasarthy, R., Solar brightness distribution at a wavelength of 60 cm - Part-I: The quiet Sun, Austr. J. Phys., 1955, 8, 487-97; Swarup, G. and Parthasarathy, R., Solar brightness distribution at a wavelength of 60 cm - Part-II: Localised radio bright regions, Austr. J. Phys., 1958, 11, 338-49; Maxwell, A. and Swarup, G., A new spectral characteristic in solar radio emission, Nature, 1958, 181, 36-8; Bracewell, R.N., Swarup, G., and Seeger, C.L., Future large radio telescope, Nature, 1962, 193, 412-6; Swarup, G., et al., The structure of Cygnus A, Astrophys. J., 1963, 138, 305-9; Swarup, G., et al., Radio observations of the quiet Sun at 49 cm, Nature, 1966, 212, 910-1; Swarup, G., A large cylindrical telescope at Ootacamund for radio astronomy observations, Proc. Symp. on Antenna, Radio & Telecom. Res., CSIR, New Delhi, 1968 (Supplement 1, pp. 1-4); Swarup, G. and Kapahi, V.K., A simple image forming technique suitable for multifrequency observations of solar radio bursts, Solar Physics, 1970, 14, 404-13; Swarup, G., et al., Large Steerable Radio Telescope at Ootacamund, India, Nature Physical Science, 1971, 230, 185-8; Swarup, G., et al., Lunar occultation observations of 25 radio sources made with the Ooty Radio Telescope: List 1, Astrophysical Letters, 1971, 9, 53-9; Gopal-Krishna, Swarup, G., et al., Occultation of Sgr A, Nature, 1972, 239, 91-3; Joshi, M.N., Kapahi, V.K., Gopal-Krishna, Sarma, N.V.G., and Swarup, G., Occultation of 50 radio sources at 327 MHz, Astronomical Journal, 1973, 78, 1023-9; Kapahi, V.G., Damle, S.H., Balasubramanian, V. and Swarup, G., An electrically steerable array of 968 Dipoles for the Ooty Radio Telescope, Journal of the Inst. Electron. and Telecom. Engrs., 1975, 21, 117-22; Gopal-Krishna and Swarup, G., The radio source Sagittarius A, Astrophysical Letters, 1976, 17, 45-7; Swarup, G., Theory and application of interplanetary scintillations, J. Scient. Ind. Res., 1977, 36, 569-79; Swarup, G., Proposal for an International Institute for Space Sciences and Electronics and for a Giant Equatorial Radio Telescope as a collaborative efforts of the developing countries, Bull. Astron. Soc. India, 1981, 9, 269-77; Swarup, G., et al., Optical identification-flux density relationship for radio galaxies, Astron. Astrophys. 1982, 107, 190-6; Swarup, G., et al., On evolutionary models of radio sources, Proc. of the Vatican Study Week on Cosmology and Fundamental Physics, Ed. H.A. Bruck, G.V. Coyne and M.S. Longair, Specola Vaticana, 1982, 383-90; Swarup, G., Sinha R.P. and Hilldrup, J., Hot spots and radio lobes of quasars, Mon. Not. R. Astr. Soc., 1984, 208, 813-43; Swarup, G., The Ooty Synthesis Radio Telescope: first results, J. Astr. Astrophys., 1984, 5, 139-48; Swarup, G., et al., Giant Equatorial Radio Telescope, Astrophys. and Space Science, 1984, 99, 403-7; Saikia, D.J., Swarup, G. and Kodali, P.D., Polarization properties of steep-spectrum radio cores, Mon. Not. R. Astr. Soc., 1985, 216, 385-94; Swarup, G., et al., Absorption lines and the radio structure of quasars, Mon. Not. R. Astr. Soc., 1986, 220,1-18; Swarup, G. and Subrahmanyan, R., Search for proto-clusters at metrewavelengths, Observational Cosmology, ed. A. Hewitt, et al., Reidel Publications, Dordrecht, 1987, 441-4; Joshi, M.N., Swarup, G., et al., A new electronically steerable 1056 dipole array at 327 MHz for the Ooty Radio Telescope, Bull. Astron. Soc. India, 1988, 16, 111-21; Sukumar, S., Velusamy, T., Rao, A.P., Swarup, G., et al., Ooty Synthesis Telescope: design and performance, Bull. Astron. Soc. India, 1988, 16, 93-110; Swarup, G., Evolution of radio galaxies & quasars in Essays on Particles and Fields (Eds. B.V. Sreekantan & R.R. Daniel), Festchrift Volume on Prof. M.G.K. Menon, Indian Academy of Sciences, Bangalore, 1989, 149-66; Subrahmanian, K. and Swarup, G., The gaseous halos of evolving galaxies: a probe using the linear sizes of radio sources, Mon. Not. R. Astr. Soc., 1990, 247, 956-62; Djorgovski, S., Meylan, G., Klemola, A., Thompson, D.J., Weir, W.N., Swarup, G., et al., A Search for the optical/IR counterpart of the probable Einstein ring source 1830-211, Mon. Not. R. Astr. Soc. 1992, 257, 240-4; Subramanian, K. and Swarup, G., A cluster of protogalaxies at redshift 3.4, Nature, 1992, 359, 512-4; Swarup, G., Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope - Its possible use for SETI, Acta Astronautica, 1992, 26, 239-42; Swarup, G., Radio Astronomy and the Developing Countries. In the Vanishing universe, Proc. IAU/ICSU/UNESCO Meeting Adverse Environmental Impacts on Astronomy (ed. D. McNally), Cambridge University Press, 1993, 109-13; Swarup, G., Experimental astronomy in India, Proc. IUCAA Dedication Seminar, 29-30 Dec. 1992, IUCAA (1997), New International Publication, 1997, 163-73; Sawant, H.S., Ludke, E., Subramanian, K.R., Fernandes, F.C.R., Cecatto, J.R., Rosa, R.R., Sobral, J.H.A., Swarup, G., et al., High resolution decimetric solar radioheliograph, NASA Workshop, ASP Conference Series, 2000, 206, 347-50; Swarup G., Sarkar, A., Observations of Associated HI Absorption in Radio Galaxies and Quasars using GMRT, Bull. Astr. Soc. India, 2002, 30, 743-6; Swarup G., Search for HI Reionization Epoch in the Early Universe, Bull. Astr. Soc. India, 2003, 31, 451-2; Poonam Chandra, Swarup, G., Kulkarni, V.K., Kantharia, N.K., Associated HI observations in the Z=3.4 radio galaxy B2 0902+343 observed with the GMRT, J. Astrophys. Astr., 25, 57-65, 2004; Swarup, G., From Potts Hill (Australia) to Pune (India): The journey of a radio astronomer, J. Astronomical History and Heritage, 9(1), 21-33, 2006; Swarup, G., The Puzzles of the universe and the giant metrewave radio telescope, The Republic of Science Golden Jubilee Vignettes, ed. Ranjit Nair, published by Scientia, an Imprint of the Centre for Philosophy and Foundations of Science, 36 Panchshila Park, New Delhi, 110017, 1-13, 2007; Swarup, G., Wind drag factors for low solidity wire-meshes for parabolic dish antennas, Proc. Fourth National Conference on WIND Engineering, NCWE-2007, held at Structural Engineering Research Centre, Chennai, 30 Oct. - 1 Nov. 2007, eds N. Lakshmanan, Arunachalam, S., Gomathinayagam, Allied Publishers, New Delhi, 129-36, 2007; Swarup, G., Reminiscences Regarding Professor W.N. Christiansen, Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage, 11(3), 194-202, 2008; Sirothia, S.K., Swarup, G., Shukla, H., Observations at 325 MHz of the WMAP cold spot, The Low-Frequency Radio Universe, eds D.J. Saikia, Dave Green, Y. Gupta and Tiziana Venturi ASP Conference Series, vol. LFRU, 51-4, 2009; Swarup, G., Scientific Quest into the Evolution of Life in the Universe, Scientific Insights into the Evolution of the Universe and of Life, Oct. 31-Nov. 5, 2008, eds W. Arber, N. Cabibbo and M. Sanchez Sorondo, Pontifical Academy of Sciences, Vatican City, 45-56, 2009; Swarup, G., Growth and Development of Radio Astronomy in India, Astronomy in India: a Historical Perspective, ed. T. Padmanabhan, Springer Pub., New York, 129-78, 2010.

Indirizzo professionale

National Center for Radio Astrophysics
Tata Institute of Fundamental Research
Pune University Campus, Post Bag 3
Ganeshikhind, Pune 411 007 (India)

Relazioni

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Scientific Quest into Evolution of Life in the Universe (PDF) 2008